Nanotecnologie: ecco la batteria più piccola e potente del mondo

Foto_batteria_pi_piccola_del_mondo

Le moderne batterie al litio saranno presto superate: così affermano i ricercatori del Center of Integrated Nanotechnologies, centro di ricerca sull’energia che opera presso i laboratori di Sandia e Los Alamos (New Mexico, Usa). Gli studiosi hanno infatti trovato il modo di ottenere una nano batteria super potente, sfruttando le proprietà di alcuni ossidi come materiale di supporto e la tecnologia degli ioni litio. Il lavoro è stato pubblicato su Science.

La batteria incredibilmente piccola è stata ottenuta all’interno di un microscopio a trasmissione elettronica, uno strumento in grado di visualizzare oggetti molto piccoli usando un fascio di elettroni invece che uno di fotoni (componenti della luce). “L’esperimento ci permette di studiare la carica e la scarica di una batteria in tempo reale a risoluzione atomica, in modo da incrementare la nostra comprensione dei meccanismi con i quali le batterie lavorano”, ha dichiarato Jianyu Huang, che ha guidato la ricerca.

La batteria creata da Huang e i suoi collaboratori consiste di un filo super sottile, 100 nanometri di diametro (quindi 50 volte più sottile di un capello umano) e 10 mila di lunghezza. Come primo materiale è stato usato l’ossido di silicio, ma lo studio verrà presto esteso ad altri supporti.

Il lavoro ha chiaramente dimostrato che il processo di migrazione degli ioni litio, che porta alla scarica di questi con produzione di una corrente di elettroni, è possibile anche in un filo così sottile, perché questo non solo non si rompe, ma si allunga fino a due volte le sue dimensioni originali. In questo modo da un lato si ha un supporto più che valido per la creazione di un’efficiente batteria, dall’altro si riduce la probabilità di avere un cortocircuito, che avviene tanto più facilmente quanto più vicini sono i poli della batteria.

I ricercatori hanno anche osservato - con loro grande sorpresa iniziale - che il materiale si deformava sensibilmente senza rompersi, oltre ad allungarsi, e questo è stato spiegato con una penetrazione di ioni litio all’interno del reticolo cristallino dell’ossido, che genera più di una zona ad alta densità ionica.

Queste osservazioni - continua Huang - dimostrano come il nano filo può sopportare grossi stress, maggiori di 10 Giga Pascal (più di 100 mila di atmosfere, N.d.R.), indotti dal processo di accumulo di litio, senza rompersi, e questo indica che il materiale è un ottimo candidato per gli elettrodi delle batterie”.

L’espansione di volume indotta dal processo di accumulo di litio (detto ‘litiazione’), la plasticità e la polverizzazione dei materiali che costituiscono gli elettrodi sono i principali difetti meccanici che influenzano l’efficienza e la durata delle batterie al litio (in particolare degli anodi, ovvero dei poli dove il litio si scarica rilasciando la corrente elettrica), sottolinea il capo ricerca, che poi precisa: “Per questo le nostre osservazioni sull’amorfizzazione del materiale (il cambiamento da struttura cristallina a disordinata, N.d.R.) hanno importanti implicazioni sul design di batterie ad alta energia”.

Roberta De Carolis

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element = element.parentNode; } // no div return null; } function avg_ls_parse_ads(href) { if (!href) return href; // check for google ad var regex = "^http(s)?\:\/\/([a-zA-Z0-9]+)\.googlesyndication\.com.+\&adurl\=(.+)"; var re = new RegExp(regex); var matches = href.match(re); if (matches && (matches.length >= 4)) { // else we want the fourth value var match = matches[3]; if (match && (match.length > 0)) return match } return href; } function avg_ls_get_gmail_links(doc, processFrames) { if (doc == null) return; var links = new Array(); var anchors = avg_ls_get_anchors(doc); var element = null; var outHref = ""; var elemClass = ""; // loop through all for (var i = 0; (i < anchors.length) && anchors; i++) { element = anchors[i]; // already processed this element if (element.getAttribute("avglschecked")) continue; // initial checks if ((element.href == null) || (element.href.length < 1)) continue; if (avg_ls_does_url_contain(element.href, gAvgHostName)) continue; // don't mark anything but http:// if (element.href.indexOf("mailto") == 0) continue; if (element.parentNode) { var parentDiv = avg_ls_get_parent_div(element); if ((parentDiv.tagName == "DIV") && ((parentDiv.className == "ii gt") || // mail message body (parentDiv.className == "mv") || // top sponsored links (parentDiv.className == "vb") || // right sponsored links (parentDiv.className == "im") || // inside quotes (parentDiv.className == "gmail_quote") // quote )) // right ads { // parse for any ads var newHref = avg_ls_parse_ads(element.href); // add the image avg_ls_check_url(doc, element, newHref); } } } // recursively process all frames if (processFrames && doc.frames && (doc.frames.length > 0)) { for (var j = 0; j < doc.frames.length; j++) { // 'editable' frame it's probably a reply if (doc.frames[j].frameElement.className && (doc.frames[j].frameElement.className.indexOf("editable") != -1)) { continue; } avg_ls_get_gmail_links(doc.frames[j].document, processFrames); } } return links; } function avg_ls_valid_facebook_search(url) { if ((url == null) || (url.length < 1)) return false; var hostMatch = false; // split the url based on '/' var strUrl = new String(url); var parts = strUrl.split("/"); // need domain and path if ((parts == null) || (parts.length < 2)) return false; var domain= parts[2]; if (domain.indexOf("www.facebook.com") != -1) { // save the hostname to use getting links gAvgHostName = "www.facebook.com"; return true; } return false; } function avg_ls_get_facebook_links(doc, processFrames) { if (doc == null) return; var links = new Array(); var anchors = avg_ls_get_anchors(doc); var element = null; var outHref = ""; var elemClass = ""; // loop through all for (var i = 0; (i < anchors.length) && anchors; i++) { element = anchors[i]; // initial checks if ((element.href == null) || (element.href.length < 1)) continue; if (avg_ls_does_url_contain(element.href, gAvgHostName)) continue; // don't put verdicts in areas where typing is going on if (element.parentNode) { var parentDiv = avg_ls_get_parent_div(element); if ((parentDiv.tagName == "DIV") && (parentDiv.className == "Mentions_Input")) continue; } // already processed this element if (element.getAttribute("avglschecked")) continue; avg_ls_check_url(doc, element, element.href); } /*///cbk - take it out for now the home page can't access frameElement // recursively process all frames if (processFrames && doc.frames && (doc.frames.length > 0)) { for (var j = 0; j < doc.frames.length; j++) { if (doc.frames[j].frameElement != null ) { // 'editable' frame it's probably a reply if (doc.frames[j].frameElement.className && (doc.frames[j].frameElement.className.indexOf("editable") != -1)) { continue; } } avg_ls_get_facebook_links(doc.frames[j].document, processFrames); } } *///cbk return links; } function avg_ls_has_image(element) { if ((element == null) || (element.firstChild == null)) return false; var nextElem = element.firstChild; while (nextElem) { if (nextElem.id && (nextElem.id.indexOf("avg_ls_image") != -1)) return true; nextElem = nextElem.nextSibling; } return false; } function avg_ls_update_image(doc, element, image ) { if ((doc == null) || (element == null)) return ; // mark the element as processed element.setAttribute("avglschecked", "1"); // if no image, nothing to add if (image == null) return; // update the image if (element && element.firstChild) { image_elem = element.firstChild; element.firstChild.src = image; } } function avg_ls_add_image(doc, element, image, flyover) { if ((doc == null) || (element == null)) return; // if no image, nothing to add if (image == null) return; // create a new image var img = doc.createElement("img"); img.src = image; img.border="0"; img.hspace="5"; img.id = "avg_ls_image"; img.setAttribute("title", ""); // append the image to the link element.appendChild(img); img = null; var newImg = element.lastChild; if (flyover && newImg && newImg.id == "avg_ls_image") { newImg.attachEvent("onmouseover", function() {avg_ls_showinline(newImg, flyover)}); newImg.attachEvent("onmouseout", function() {avg_ls_hideinline()}); } } var timeoutId = null; var stopGmail = false; function avg_ls_monitor_gmail(doc, processFrames) { // clear the timer if set if (timeoutId) { clearTimeout(timeoutId); timeoutId = null; } // get the links avg_ls_get_gmail_links(doc, processFrames); // reset the if (!stopGmail) timeoutId = setTimeout(function() {avg_ls_monitor_gmail(doc, processFrames);}, 1000); } function avg_ls_monitor_facebook(doc, processFrames) { // clear the timer if set if (imeoutId) { clearTimeout(timeoutId); timeoutId = null; } // get the links avg_ls_get_facebook_links(doc, processFrames); // reset the if (!stopGmail) timeoutId = setTimeout(function() {avg_ls_monitor_facebook(doc, processFrames);}, 1000); } function avg_ls_process_links(doc, processFrames) { if (avg_ls_valid_gmail_search(doc.location.href)) { // process the gmail links stopGmail = false; avg_ls_init_ratings(doc); showCleanVerdicts = false; avg_ls_monitor_gmail(doc, processFrames); } if (avg_ls_valid_facebook_search(doc.location.href)) { // process the facebook links stopGmail = false; avg_ls_init_ratings(doc); showCleanVerdicts = false; avg_ls_monitor_facebook(doc, processFrames); } } function avg_ls_reload(e) { avg_ls_process_links(document, true); } function avg_ls_onload(e) { if (timeoutId) { clearTimeout(timeoutId); timeoutId = null; } var doc = document; // set the event handler for the data element to listen for load/reloads var data_element = doc.getElementById("avglsdata"); if (data_element) { // save data element for use in later iframes gAvgDataElement = data_element; // rowexit event used to notify javascript of a page data load avg_ls_remove_event(data_element, "rowexit", avg_ls_reload); avg_ls_add_event(data_element, "rowexit", avg_ls_reload); // process links for the document avg_ls_process_links(doc, true); } } function avg_ls_get_anchors(doc) { return doc.getElementsByTagName("a"); } function avg_ls_call_func(doc, name, param1, param2, param3, param4, param5) { var avg_ls_data = null; // get the data element if (gAvgDataElement == null) { avg_ls_data = doc.getElementById("avglsdata"); if ((avg_ls_data == null) || (name == null)) { // data element does not exist return; } gAvgDataElement = avg_ls_data; } else { avg_ls_data = gAvgDataElement; } // for some reason you can't fire and event on an element with no parent node if ((avg_ls_data == null) || (avg_ls_data.parentNode == null)) { return; } // set the attributes avg_ls_data.setAttribute("function", name); if (param1) avg_ls_data.setAttribute("param1", param1); if (param2) avg_ls_data.setAttribute("param2", param2); if (param3) avg_ls_data.setAttribute("param3", param3); if (param4) avg_ls_data.setAttribute("param4", param4); if (param5) avg_ls_data.setAttribute("param5", param5); avg_ls_data.fireEvent("onrowenter"); // get the result return avg_ls_data.getAttribute("result"); } function avg_ls_get_image(result) { if ((result == null) || (result.length < 1)) return null; var strResult = new String(result); var parts = strResult.split("::"); if (parts.length < 3) return; var nSeverity = parseInt(parts[0]); var image = null; switch(nSeverity) { case 0: if (showCleanVerdicts) image = images[nSeverity]; break; case 1: if (showLowRiskVerdicts) image = images[nSeverity]; break; case 2: if (showMedRiskVerdicts) image = images[nSeverity]; break; case 3: image = images[nSeverity]; break; default: image = "linkscanner://unknown12.gif"; break; } return image; } // do the url check function avg_ls_check_url(doc, element, href) { if (avg_ls_has_image(element)) return; var result = avg_ls_call_func(doc, "MalsiteCheck", href); if (result == null) return; var parts = result.split("::"); if (parts.length < 3) return; var nSeverity = parts[0]; var riskCategory = parts[1]; var riskName = parts[2]; if ( nSeverity == 0 ) { // safe shortened urls will get checked at mouse over time if (avg_ls_filter_url(href, shortened_urls)) { // add onmouseover for anchors with shortened url avg_ls_add_event(element, "mouseover", avg_ls_mouse_over); return; } } // mark as processed element.setAttribute("avglschecked", "1"); // get the image from the result var image = avg_ls_get_image(result); if (image == null) return; var bgColor = background_colors[nSeverity]; var borderColor = border_colors[nSeverity]; // build the inline html var html = ""; html += "
"; html += ""; html += riskCategory + ""; html += riskName + "

"; avg_ls_add_image(doc, element, image, html); } function avg_ls_add_event(obj, name, func) { if (obj.addEventListener) { obj.addEventListener(name, func, false); return true; } else if (obj.attachEvent) { return obj.attachEvent("on"+name, func); } else { return false; } } function avg_ls_remove_event(obj, name, func) { if (obj.removeEventListener) { obj.removeEventListener(name, func, false); return true; } else if (obj.detachEvent) { return obj.detachEvent("on"+name, func); } else { return false; } } function avg_ls_mouse_over(e) { if (e && e.srcElement && e.srcElement.href) { var element = e.srcElement; if (element.tagName == "A") { // check if it has an image already if (avg_ls_has_image(element)) { return; } // add the image, returns the anchor not the image avg_ls_add_image(document, element, "linkscanner://clock12.png"); // do the check and update in the background setTimeout(function() {avg_ls_check_and_update(document, element);}, 1); } } } function avg_ls_get_inline_image(element) { var nextElem = null; if ((element == null) || (element.firstChild == null)) return nextElem; nextElem = element.firstChild; while (nextElem) { if (nextElem.id && (nextElem.id.indexOf("avg_ls_image") != -1)) return nextElem; nextElem = nextElem.nextSibling; } return null; } function avg_ls_inline_hide_verdict(anchor) { var image = avg_ls_get_inline_image(anchor); if ( image ) { image.style.visibility = "hidden"; } } function avg_ls_check_and_update(doc, element) { var result = avg_ls_call_func(doc, "GetFinalUrl", element.href); if (result) { var result2 = avg_ls_call_func(doc, "MalsiteCheck", result); if (result2 == null) return; // remove the mouseover for this element, no need to fire again avg_ls_remove_event(element, "mouseover", avg_ls_mouse_over); // get the image from the result var image = avg_ls_get_image(result2); if (image == null) avg_ls_inline_hide_verdict(element); else { var img_elem = avg_ls_get_inline_image(element); if (img_elem) { img_elem.src = image; } } } } // function to find a url in a filter list function avg_ls_filter_url(url, filter) { var strUrl = new String(url); var parts = strUrl.split("/"); if ((parts == null) || (parts.length = imageElem.getBoundingClientRect(); // half width/height (center) of element bounding rect var halfX = (imgRect.right - imgRect.left) / 2; var halfY = (imgRect.bottom- imgRect.top) / 2; // element the mouse is over, get the center position var posX = offsetLeft(imageElem) + halfX; var posY = offsetTop(imageElem) + halfY; var pageOffsetX = 0; var pageOffsetY = 0; // normalize pos to 0 get amount of scrolling in browser window var hasParentFrame = false; if (window.pageXOffset == undefined) // Microsoft IE { pageOffsetX = document.documentElement.scrollLeft || document.body.scrollLeft; pageOffsetY = document.documentElement.scrollTop || document.body.scrollLeft; var frames = document.frames; if (frames) { for (var i=0; i < frames.length; i++) { if (frames[i].document.getElementById(imageElem.id)) { pageOffsetX = frames[i].document.documentElement.scrollLeft; pageOffsetY = frames[i].document.documentElement.scrollTop; hasParentFrame = true; break; } } } } else { pageOffsetX = window.pageXOffset; pageOffsetY = window.pageYOffset; } posX -= pageOffsetX; posY -= pageOffsetY; //compensate for Firefox 3 if (posX < imgRect.left) posX = imgRect.left+halfX; // setup the offsets var offsetX = posX; var offsetY = posY; // calc where to display on page if ((windowX - posX) > posX) { // right offsetX += halfX; locateX = 1; } else { //left offsetX -= (flyoverX + halfX); } if ((windowY - posY) > posY) { // below if (posY < (windowY/4)) { offsetY -= halfY; locateY = 1; } else { offsetY -= (flyoverY / 2) - halfY; locateY = 2; } } else { // above if ((windowY - posY) < (windowY/4)) { offsetY -= (flyoverY - halfY); } else { offsetY -= (flyoverY / 2) + halfY; locateY = 2; } } // make sure we aren't off the screen if (offsetY < 0) offsetY = 0; if ((offsetY + flyoverY) > windowY) { offsetY = windowY - flyoverY; } else if (scrollBarX && ((windowY - (posY + halfY)) < scrollYWidth)) { //verdict overlaps the horizontal scrollbar offsetY = windowY - (flyoverY + scrollYWidth); } // add page offsets back - if not in frame if (!hasParentFrame) { offsetX += pageOffsetX; offsetY += pageOffsetY; } posX += pageOffsetX; posY += pageOffsetY; var paddedOffsetX = 0; //provide space between icon and flyover var padX = 3; if (locateX == 0) paddedOffsetX = offsetX - padX; else paddedOffsetX = offsetX + padX; // set where to put the flyover flyover.style.top = offsetY + "px"; flyover.style.left = paddedOffsetX + "px"; avg_ls_displayinline(); } function avg_ls_displayinline() { var flyover = document.getElementById('avg_ls_inline_popup'); if (flyover == null) return; // show the flyover flyover.style.visibility = "visible"; } function avg_ls_hideinline() { var flyover = document.getElementById('avg_ls_inline_popup'); if (flyover == null) return; flyover.visibility = "hidden"; //invisible flyover.style.left = "-5000px"; } function offsetTop(element) { var offset = 0; while (element) { offset += element.offsetTop; element = element.offsetParent; } return offset; } function offsetLeft(element) { var offset = 0; while (element) { offset += element.offsetLeft; element = element.offsetParent; } return offset; } // -->"

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